factors affecting poultry meat quality

You have entered an incorrect email address! Water is the most important nutrie…, Ongoing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza are gravely impacting poultry flocks across Europe and Asia, spurring economists to revise their chicken meat consumption estimates for 2021.…. Conclusion When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. Food Quality 14:33-60. A diet with lower than recommended protein reduces the yield of meat and increases the fat content of the carcass and saturation of the carcass fat. This means that it is not only difficult to produce a flavour defect but it is difficult to enhance flavour during production and processing. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 percent of the poultry meat will be tender (Figure 2). Although electrical stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. Copyright © 2020 Poultryproducer.com . Poultry meat color is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, preslaughter conditions and processing variables. Julie K. Northcutt In order to meet the consumers’ growing demands for high-quality protein, the poultry industry focused on selection of fast-growing broilers, which reach a body mass of about 2.5 kg within 6-week-intensive fattening. Color of cooked or raw poultry meat is important because consumers associate it with the product’s freshness, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness. Age, together with species and environmental conditions, is one of the key factors affecting body growth rate. The nutritional quality of meat is objective yet “eating” quality, as perceived by the consumer, is highly subjective. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. Table 1 Stress factors that affect meat quality of poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep, calves and lamb. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. Mugler and Cunningham (1972) reviewed many of the factors affecting poultry meat colour. Approximately 29 per cent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 per cent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur, but this is often difficult to determine. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Approximately 29 percent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 percent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Corpus ID: 38895506. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. Types of meat and Poultry (Meat) 43. Meat quality is normally defined by the compositional quality (lean to fat ratio) and the palatability factors such as visual appearance, smell, firmness, juiciness, tenderness, and flavor. Proceedings Georgia International Poultry Course, Athens, GA. Gregory, N.G. Is the flavor of the meat correct? However, this is costly for the processor. Stressor agent Species Effects observed on meat quality Reference Heat stress Poultry Higher incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat and decrease in the a* value of meat; Meat cuts 1. The effect of deboning time on cooked meat tenderness. ©2000 ‐ 2021 ‐ Global Ag Media. Department of Poultry Science, I. The inclusio… Many factors can adversely affect egg production. This means that it is not only difficult to produce a flavor defect, but it is difficult to enhance flavor during production and processing. However, this definition is incomplete because it does not consider the product's character. Agricultural Marketing Service. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. Factors affecting eating quality Eating quality is a key purchase driver for red meat consumers. Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink color when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw. All rights reserved. The extent of the discoloration is related to each bird’s individual response to the conditions. When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste and feel good in their mouth. Poultry Trends contains both regional and global statistics on poultry meat and eggs, covering production, consumption, trade, and the leading poultry producers and feed manufacturers worldwide. Meat Quality Testing. Dosatron launched “smart dosing” with their newest medicator system. Lyon, B. G. And C. E. Lyon. The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality – the state of the animal at slaughter. These are all factors that are associated with how the poultry was raised and what it was fed. Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. 2.3.1 INTRINSIC QUALITY CUES Such factors as bird sex, age, strain, processing procedures, chemical exposure, cooking temperature, irradiation, and freezing conditions were all shown to affect poultry meat colour. These documents were written by Jose J. Br…. Primal and wholesale Lamb 40. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. The importance of supplying clean and fresh water to flocks cannot be overemphasized. Color of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and hemoglobin. Nutrition of birds has a significant impact on poultry meat quality and safety. 1992. When poultry is cooked, flavour develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. Author/s : R. Scott Beyer, Poultry Specialist - EP-127 publication, Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service Many factors affect egg quality. Although electri-cal stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. Elsevier Applied Science, New York. The amount of “blood” present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. While appearance is the most important factor in making the initial sale, texture is the most important sensory property that consumers use to judge poultry quality (Cambridge). The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality — a function of the combined effects of appearance, texture and flavor. Since people only buy what they like, the consumer’s perspective of quality is more appropriate. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. When buying poultry products, consumers want tender meat that is easy to chew and tear off; otherwise, no matter how well it’s flavored, it just won’t taste right. The energy source used in the diet is also a factor for determining meat quality. Quality attributes of a food product, Figure 2. Long-term factors acting throughout the life of the bird, such as genetics, physiology, and disease management. Historically, meat tenderness was primarily associated with live bird quality factors such as breed, sex, or age. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. Sometimes the cause is not a single factor but a combination of factors. The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce 'aging' time before deboning. 1-30. On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 per cent of the poultry meat will be tender. This is a difficult task because quality is 'in the eye of the beholder'. 2.3 FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER PERCEPTION ON MEAT QUALITY Main factors or quality cues that most contributes to the consumers’ perception on beef meat quality are the intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues. To avoid this toughening, meat is usually 'aged' for 6 to 24 hours before deboning. Meeting these eating quality expectations and giving consumers confidence in their beef and sheepmeat purchases is the purpose of Meat Standards Australia (MSA). Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. To satisfy these demands, poultry producers must consider every factor that may affect the final quality of the meat they produce. Texture is the single most important sensory property affecting final quality assessment. Dietary protein content does not only affect weight gain and feed efficiency of chicks, but has also a marked effect on the quality of their carcasses (yield of edible meat, and carcass fat content). This is different from energy depletion in the live bird which causes meat to be tough. The Handbook of Meat, Poultry and Seafood Quality commences with a discussion of basic scientific factors responsible for the quality of fresh, frozen and processed muscle foods, especially sensory attributes and flavors. For example, birds that struggle before or during slaughter cause their muscles to run out of energy quicker, and rigor mortis forms much faster than normal. Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. The extent of the discoloration is related to each bird's individual response to the conditions. Stress Factors That Affect Meat Quality From the farm to abattoir, various stressors, such as environmental stress, nutritional stress, preslaughter handling stress, and other stress … Beef 41. The elements an inspector looks for include, is the meat tender? The sense of smell in food quality and sensory evaluation. stressor agents can affect meat quality in the species. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer’s expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird’s development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. The color of the bruise, the amount of “blood” present, and the extent of the “blood clot” formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. Other factors Experimental work carried out in broilers by the Free University of Berlin has demonstrated that digestion of calcium, phosphorus and other nutrients increases with the inclusion of phytogenic additives in the feed. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavour when they are eating it. Since people only buy what they like, the consumer's perspective of quality is more appropriate. Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavor. Results from Commercial Trial Show Improved Laying Hen Performance And Reduced Mortality, Arkansas Farm Bureau – Poultry House Lighting Advances, Population diagnostics challenging for poultry veterinarians, By Philip A. Stayer, Sanderson Farms, How to treat small wounds in poultry, By Gino Lorenzoni Penn State University, Elanco begins next phase of Integration post-Bayer Animal Health Acquisition; Executive Committee Member Sarena Lin to Depart. High pre-slaughter stunning, high scalding temperatures, longer scalding times and machine picking can also cause poultry meat to be tough. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. High pre-slaughter stunning, high scalding temperatures, longer scalding times and machine picking can also cause poultry meat to be tough. Flavor and B. Sauveur}, year={2013} } These factors must be identified and accommodated at every stage, from the parent stock to the fertilized egg, through hatchery operations and broiler farms, right down to processing and delivery to the end consumer. High stocking density causes reduced feed consumption, lower growth rates and poor-quality carcasses. These chemical changes are not unique to poultry but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odour to account for the characteristic 'poultry' flavour. II. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer's expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird's development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. Meat depends upon the presence of the animal at slaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality means it... Chilling, product packaging, and this has created some special problems for poultry... 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